Italian Cold Fusion Tide Lifts All Boats. ARXIV IPaper Confirms Rossi Fusion
Just published on the Physics Internet Journal arxiv, a multi-national team assembled to independently study and report on Rossi’s cold fusion demonstration apparatus… It is wildly positive, read more here…
Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder.
Giuseppe Levi - Bologna University, Bologna, Italy; Evelyn Foschi - Bologna, Italy; Torbjörn Hartman, Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér – Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hanno Essén - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
ABSTRACT + excerpts
“An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube.
Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth threephase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments.
The 116-hour experiment also included a calibration of the experimental set-up without the active charge present in the E-Cat HT. In this case, no extra heat was generated beyond the expected heat from the electric input.
Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources.
For a further confirmation of the fact that the E-Cat HT2’s performance lies outside the known region of chemical energy densities, one can also calculate the volumetric energy density of the reactor, by referring to the whole volume occupied by the internal cylinder, namely 1.52π33 = 233 cm3= 0.233 l. This is the most conservative and “blind” approach possible.
Taking the figures from the worst case, we get a net power of 800-354=446 W; by multiplying this by (3600 · 116), we find that 185 Mj where produced. Thus, we have a volumetric energy density of 185/0.233 =(7.93 ± 0.8)10 2 Mj/Liter, meaning that even by resorting to the most conservative and “worst case scenarios”, where the total volume of the reactor is comprehensive of the 5- mm thick steel cylinder, we see that we are still at least one order of magnitude above the volumetric energy density of any known chemical source.”
“The two test measurements described in this text were conducted with the same methodology on two different devices: a first prototype, termed E-Cat HT, and a second one, resulting from technological improvements on the first, termed E-Cat HT2. Both have indicated heat production from an unknown reaction primed by heat from resistor coils. The results obtained indicate that energy was produced in decidedly higher quantities than what may be gained from any conventional source.
In the March test, about 62 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of about 33 kWh, a power density of about 5.3 · e5 , and a density of thermal energy of about 6.1 · e7 Wh/kg. In the December test, about 160 net kWh were produced, with a consumption of 35 kWh, a power density of about 7 · e3 W/kg and a thermal energy density of about 6.8 · e5 Wh/kg.
Even from the standpoint of a “blind” evaluation of volumetric energy density, if we consider the whole volume of the reactor core and the most conservative figures on energy production, we still get a value of (7.93 ± 0.8) 102 MJ/Liter that is one order of magnitude higher than any conventional source.
Lastly, it must be remarked that both tests were terminated by a deliberate shut down of the reactor, not by fuel exhaustion; thus, the energy densities that were measured should be considered as lower limits of real values.”
Rossi has reportedly shipped one or more of his megawatt reactors to US customers who are widely reported to by associated with the Department of Defence. Extensive tests of these breakthrough fusion energy machines will take place this summer.
If proven to be as real and as simple as reports show the end of the fossil fuel age might just be sooner than most have imagined. It’s been a long time coming but cold fusion has finally been delivered. Those who have through their dogma and avarice kept this clean energy source away from the world since it’s presentation to the world in March 1989 have some explaining to do.